When We Met Other Human Species

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  • Published: 10 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: globuss.info/user/pbsdigitalstudios

    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan

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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 4 170

  • Alec Minnick
    Alec Minnick  10 minutes back

    Pronunciations aren't vital to the discussion, and they seem to change so often that I don't reserve any brain power or space to trying to re-memorize the way to say a term, as when I apparently "mispronounce" a name, the listener still understands what I'm speaking about.

    • Ed SR
      Ed SR  19 minutes back

      We assimilated them, we added their biological and technological distinctiveness to our own, their culture adapted to service us, resistance was futile

      • Damon Howell
        Damon Howell  46 minutes back

        I don't buy that they couldn't adapt to environmental changes, because they were around for nearly 500,000 years, and lived through at least four ice ages. More likely to be either natural selection due to their low population, or modern humans brought all kinds of diseases which killed them, as the Europeans did to the Americans 150 years ago.

        • Three One
          Three One  2 hours back

          I self identify as Neanderthal.

          • Loo
            Loo  4 hours back

            I've heard one theory of the reason we beat out the Neanderthals was because we had a much higher ability of communication and also a better ability to use abstract thought which let us adapt to things easier and also allowed us to have larger and more prosperous communities.

            • Sam S
              Sam S  4 hours back

              I sometimes feel a strong longing to NOT be alone. To have other groups of humans around us. I know the world would probably be even more racist and ableist if we had more human species, but on the other hand there would be even more diversity, and I'd just love to know how we would all fit in together in modern society. What would these other species bring that we haven't come up with? Maybe in a few hundred years we will bring them back by cloning them with old DNA.

              • Annette Knudsen
                Annette Knudsen  8 hours back

                It takes about 100 to 365 days for a human to travel around earth for sure have human walk the eaths km/H about 1.700.000 times of 7 millions years

                • Nicolai Manev
                  Nicolai Manev  11 hours back

                  According to the definition of species, if all those hominids could have had common descendants, they belonged to the same species. Or sub species are implied?

                  • bigredwolf6
                    bigredwolf6  13 hours back

                    Honestly I wasn’t expecting him to say we met them and interbred with. I was expecting him to say we met them, and then we killed them.

                    • Abhi
                      Abhi  16 hours back

                      Yo

                      • White American Male
                        White American Male  17 hours back

                        #FreePalistine

                        • Avoan Black
                          Avoan Black  18 hours back

                          "We are the last humans"

                          • HonorisCreed
                            HonorisCreed  19 hours back

                            This taught me nothing.

                            • first Impression
                              first Impression  21 hours back

                              If they mate then they are from the same species, that is one way to define what a species is...

                              • Dingus - Games, vlogs, and more?

                                Awesome video! Also, I've heard of another hypothesis about why the neanderthals were not as successful was due to lacking vocal abilities. While they could speak, they were nowhere near the capabilities of Homo Sapiens and this would have affected their ability to resolve group conflict, hunt, and fight/defend together. Over thousands of years that could chip away at a population. Not saying this is the SOLE reason, their demise was indisputably caused by many issues, just my two cents!

                                • They killed pookie
                                  They killed pookie  23 hours back

                                  😂

                                  • Stonersloth Hughes
                                    Stonersloth Hughes  24 hours back

                                    It's probably most likely all the things you listed are the reasons the neanderthals. They were on their way out because of the ice age, and whenever homo sapiens migrated north they out commpeated them in many areas, they then started inter breeding and because of their low numbers they were interbred into the homosapiens gen pools. The remaining were probably out compeated whenever dogs were domesicated and homo sapiens sphear technology.

                                    • Strategic Thinker
                                      Strategic Thinker  1 days back

                                      Denisovans looked like Chewbacca?

                                      • attovishnu
                                        attovishnu  1 days back

                                        It's very reassuring to know that homo sapiens bred with neanderthals, now we know that the hybrid is Sasquatch. The tradeoff? We got dwarfism, sasquatch got giantism.

                                        • Chizachuku
                                          Chizachuku  1 days back

                                          Imagine a prehistoric proto-world war, sapiens vs all. That'd be a sick background for a new TV series if there's anyone out there who's interested cough Netflix cough hbo come on

                                          • Charlie Clumsy
                                            Charlie Clumsy  1 days back

                                            Does that mean that Africans can't handle cold as well as EuroAsian people?

                                            • Charlie Clumsy
                                              Charlie Clumsy  1 days back

                                              I love the Internet. I love having the possibility to learn information like this very easily.

                                              • Afrika Smith
                                                Afrika Smith  1 days back

                                                Next thing you know will discover that humans used to be as diverse as Middle Earth.

                                                • Jim Battersbee
                                                  Jim Battersbee  1 days back

                                                  The most recent evolutionary split among hominids is to be found in the USA. an odd collection of humans that deny scientific facts in favor of "alternative facts". Truly bizarre.

                                                  • goatneck
                                                    goatneck  2 days back

                                                    Wait, if they were a different species how did they were able to reproduce with homo sapiens?

                                                    • Some Dragon to Slay
                                                      Some Dragon to Slay  2 days back

                                                      Could someone explain me why they were a different species if they could interbreed with us? Isn't that against the definition of species?

                                                      • Charlotte Gill
                                                        Charlotte Gill  2 days back

                                                        23andme tells me that I have 311 variants of Neanderthal DNA which is 93% more than average person 😊

                                                      • 33kaus holokaust
                                                        33kaus holokaust  2 days back

                                                        If today the neanderthal lived, the homo sapiens would have used them as slaves .


                                                        We as humans cant even tolerate other races of our same species. Imagine if the species were different

                                                        We are less evolved than our ancestors. We are more divided than our ancestors were.

                                                        Our ancestors survived because they learned to coexist. We will die cos we forgot to co exist

                                                      • Raymond Palmer
                                                        Raymond Palmer  2 days back

                                                        Solar system is only 24000 years old. Humans aren't even indigenous to eArth!

                                                        • Raymond Palmer
                                                          Raymond Palmer  6 hours back

                                                          fourteenlizard you're pulling a number outta' the air....

                                                          It's 24000 years old. Look at the solar system it has two creational mistakes, three moderate succeeses, a creational correction, unfinished planets intended to be better than earth and the remnant of a war!

                                                          There's no such thing as a Neanderthal.

                                                        • fourteenlizard
                                                          fourteenlizard  7 hours back

                                                          You're joking right?

                                                          Try 4.568 billion years.

                                                      • John Kotab
                                                        John Kotab  2 days back

                                                        A note on "Species"
                                                        Species differentiation as a scientific truth is quite grey now, with all that we've learned even in the last decade. We have found hundreds of examples of species that can interbreed and create fertile offspring once geographical (ie, different side of the mountain range or ocean) or temporal (ie, different flowering times, times of mammal's heat/fertility cycle) barriers are overcome, which is quite easy to do in laboratory settings. Climate change has broken down some these natural barriers to reproduction cross-species, so that it happens in the wild. Temperate-climate bears like the Grizzly and tundra-climate bears like the Polar now have overlapping population distributions, and have interbred. Its possible that some of these more-subtle (ie, noticeable over millions of years, not over decades like in modern history) changes in climate resulted in our interbreeding with Neanderthals.

                                                        • Tom Hansen
                                                          Tom Hansen  2 days back

                                                          The other interesting thought is the FOXP2 gene in Neanderthals, which affects linguistic abilities. While this is a hypothesis, I have a feeling that they may have had an influence on our languages. We'll never know for certain, though.

                                                          • mick hanks
                                                            mick hanks  2 days back

                                                            isn't the concept of a "Tree" as analogy becoming a poor metaphor to represent life?

                                                            • CBourn48223
                                                              CBourn48223  2 days back

                                                              The H isn't silent bruh.

                                                              • Sentinel
                                                                Sentinel  14 hours back

                                                                The h isn't there

                                                            • Its2AM
                                                              Its2AM  2 days back

                                                              Are you saying there are genetic differences between the races? I thought race was a social construct

                                                              • renge9909
                                                                renge9909  2 days back

                                                                I mean, there are genetic differences _within_ races too.

                                                            • Kiss two Gays
                                                              Kiss two Gays  2 days back

                                                              This channel is so crazy

                                                              • Brain Snott
                                                                Brain Snott  2 days back

                                                                3 species of humans still

                                                                • Nate Taite
                                                                  Nate Taite  2 days back

                                                                  Can we all just agree humans didn't out compete them to their demise. They were killed off by a catastrophe. Probably a astroid raised tsunamis and killed a lot of them off. Especially when you think about how benefitial it is to live by the water.

                                                                  • The Brocialist
                                                                    The Brocialist  2 days back

                                                                    In every social group, there has to be that one crazy bastard who’ll stick his schlong into anything with a pulse. You can thank him or her the next time you don’t die from a paper cut

                                                                    • Donnie Pinns
                                                                      Donnie Pinns  2 days back

                                                                      Well, we may say we f***ed 'em to death lol

                                                                      • E. MAR
                                                                        E. MAR  2 days back

                                                                        What a waste of time!

                                                                        • Lumosnight
                                                                          Lumosnight  2 days back

                                                                          Interesting how a lot of these Neanderthal remains were found in the Balkans... you should do a video on the ancient Vinčan culture, located in modern day Serbia. These were some of the first European settlers.

                                                                          • Oneal the music man
                                                                            Oneal the music man  2 days back

                                                                            I already knew like 90 percent of this lmao

                                                                            • Caustix Soda
                                                                              Caustix Soda  2 days back

                                                                              What a load of nonsense

                                                                              • Blue
                                                                                Blue  2 days back

                                                                                sima de los
                                                                                W I S O S

                                                                                • Jeong-hun Sin
                                                                                  Jeong-hun Sin  2 days back

                                                                                  Human contact: the final frontier.

                                                                                  • khestun banga
                                                                                    khestun banga  2 days back

                                                                                    FREE TIBET

                                                                                    • VIVEK CHOUDHURY
                                                                                      VIVEK CHOUDHURY  2 days back

                                                                                      The concluding lines "They live on in our genes, reminding us of a time when we weren't alone", kinda makes me sad for the Neanderthals ...

                                                                                      • Wayne Mercer
                                                                                        Wayne Mercer  2 days back

                                                                                        I wonder how the presenter would surive in those times... Lol what have we become.. homopuneyous